Temple of Hathor at Dendera

Temple of Hathor, Dendera

The  great  temple,  devoted  to  Hathor,  dates  to  the reign of King Khufu (Cheops, 2551–2528B.C.E.), and other from  the  Eleventh  Dynasty  (2134–1991  B.C.E.)  was  discovered near a sacred lake at Dendereh. The main temple was fashioned out of a stone platform on a sand base  with  a  mud-brick  enclosure  wall.  A  propylon entrance  leads  to  a  transverse  hypostyle  hall  with  24 columns.  A  second  hall  has  six  columns  and  a  short ramp. Also included in the temple are the Hall of Offerings, an inner lobby, and the Hall of the Cycle of the Gods. Several chapels are also in the complex, the Per-Ur, dedicated to the start of the new year; Per-Nu, honoring the journey of the goddess to Edfu; Per-Neser, devoted to the goddess as a lioness. Below, there are 32 treasure crypts. The essential temple backups at Dendereh also mention Pepi I (r. 2289–2255 B.C.E.), Tuthmosis III (r. 1479–1425 B.C.E.), and Ptolemy XII Auletes (r. 88–58, 55–51 B.C.E.). This structure also had a “Dendereh Zodiac” relief and a sanitarium where Egyptians were reportedly cured of illness through Hathor’s intercessions.

Hathor temple  inscriptions  were  studied  by  Dümichen  (1865–75),  Mariette  (circa 1879), and Heinrich Brugsch (circa 1880); systematic publication of the inscriptions was undertaken by Émile Chassinat, observed by François Daumas (1934–87) and is being kept  by  Sylvie  Cauville.  The  mammisi  were  studied  and  published  by  François Daumas (1959). The publication of the temple of Isis is in advance and will be surveyed by that of the north gate and the repositories situated outside the inclosure wall (i.e. the temple  of  Ptolemy  VI  Philopater  and  the  gateway  of  Horus).  Architectural  studies are being undertaken by Zignani of the Hathor temple and by Boutros of the basilica.

A structure  whose  axis  is  adjusted  with  the  heliacal  rising  of  the  star  Sirius  was made during the reign of Ramses II, so out the building of Ptolemy XII  by  great  1,200  years.  Astronomical  research  has  demonstrated  that  the  famous Dendera  zodiac  relief  was  conceived during  the  summer  of  50  BC;  it reveals  that Egyptian priests had a more advanced knowledge of astronomy than had antecedently been known. The ribbon of the Osiris chapels took place over 3 years, from 50–48 BC, and their startup took place on December 28, 47 BC (the 26 th day of Khoiak), the day of a zenithal wide moon, a alignment that takes direct only once every 1,480 years.

Temple of Hathor does not take issue appreciably from the project of the Edfu temple, the most  complete  cultic  memorial  of  the  Graeco-Roman  period.  This  plan  lies  of  a sanctuary, chapels and great liturgical halls alongside cult rooms to store the equipment and  offerings  required  for  the  daily  ritual  or  various  festivals.  The  architectural originality  of  the  temple  of  Hathor  domiciliate  in  the  majestic  crypts  contrived  in  the thickness of the walls and on three levels. The underground crypts helped as a sort of foundation  for  the  temple.  Inside  these  secret  spaces  were  stored  about  160  statues, which ranged from 22.5 to 210.0 centimeter in height. The best statues, made of wood, were sunk in an most inacessible crypt.