Djer (Itit) (3016—2970)

Cartouche of Djer
Djer was the second pharaoh during the 1st Dynasty, when the crown still resided at Memphis. He was the son of Aha and one of his lesser placed wives, a woman named Hent. Djer established a palace at Memphis where he ruled Egypt from for fifty years. He also launched a successful military effort to fight the Hekssus in Sinai. His name was found in an inscription on the Wadi Halfa, south of the first Cataract, proving the boundaries of his reign. Djer's wife was Queen Herneith. He was sunk in a mortuary complex which is named the True Essential of the god Osiris.

His tomb, at abydos, (tomb o) holds 300 alternative burials, just weest of Aha; made of brick 70 x 40 meters. In the Umm el- Ga’ab section tomb believed to hold Osiris and focus of pilgrimages. Later mistaken for the tomb of Osiris. Discovered by Emile Amelineau in 1895 with a 5 year contract for mining.

King Djer's Burial position:

He was a low archeaologist – probably he got the contract because he was friends with the manager of the Egyptian Antiquities Service in Cairo – and discovered the “Tomb of Osiris” in "Umm el Ga’ab", an area simply prosperous with artifacts. He completely cleared the tomb between January 1 and January 12th, discarding whole piles of artifacts and retaining only complete objects. Most things were simply ignored if the felt them of no value.l. He found a basalt statue on a bier (similar to the funerary couch of Tut) in the tomb, and a skull in one chamber.  He decided (quite arbitrarily, based on the stiarcase) that this was athe tomb of Osiris himself, and the skull was that of the god – or, in his view, a true historical figure. The skull was later identified as that of a woman,b ut this did not change Emile’s view.