Early Dynastic Period

The historical shows of ancient Egypt begin with Egypt as a unified state, which occurred sometime about 3150 BC. According to Egyptian tradition Menes, thought to have merged Upper and Lower Egypt, was the first pharaoh. This Egyptian culture, traditions, art construction, architecture, and social structure was closely tied to religion, remarkably stable, and changed little over a period of nearly 3000 years. Egyptian chronology, which involves regnal years, started around this time. The conventional Egyptian chronology is the chronology accepted during the twentieth century, but it does not include any of the leading revision proposals that also have been made in that time. Even within a single work, archaeologists often will offer several possible dates or even different whole chronologies as possibilities. Consequently, there may be discrepancies between dates showed here and in articles on particular swayer or topics related to ancient Egypt. There likewise are several manageable spellings of the names. Typically, Egyptologists separate the history of pharaonic civilization using a schedule laid out first by Manetho's Aegyptiaca [History of Egypt] that was written during the Ptolemaic era, during the 3rd century BC.

Prior to the union of Egypt, the land was settled with individual villages. With the early dynasties, and for some of Egypt's history thereafter, the country came to be known as the Two Lands. The rulers made a national governing and appointed royal governors.

Matching to Manetho, the 1st pharaoh was Menes, but archaeological findings support the view that the first pharaoh to claim to have united the two lands was Narmer (the last pharaoh of the Protodynastic Period). His name is known mainly from the famous Narmer Palette, whose pictures have been read as the act of uniting Upper and Lower Egypt. Funeral applies for the elite resulted in the construction of mastaba tombs, which later got models for accompanying Old Kingdom buildings such as the Step pyramid.